Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Discussion board Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 4

Discussion board - Assignment Example By so doing, most employees will work towards ensuring that the organization achieves their goals, and they get paid adequately because there will be job satisfaction as the payment plans are equal among all employees. The fair distribution of merit pay and other incentives makes the employees feel appreciated in the organization because the employer does not allow bias when it comes to compensating employees. In addition, the employer may come up with a payment plan where they can invest in the strong workers, to ensure that the poor workers work towards getting to where the strong workers are or have achieved. Additionally, it is a means of cultivating the stronger skills in the country to ensure that this workers stay in the organization and use their skills adequately in the organization. It is important for the organization to come up with a way to gather data to ensure that pay-for –performance is equitable and does not amount to favoring one group. The kind of data that is required include the objectives of every employee in the organization. This is because the employee’s objectives indicate whether the employee has similar goals as those of the organization. Secondly, the organization requires establishing the performance of the employees by conducting performance appraisals to establish, which employees are using their skills for the benefit of the organization. This is because having another perspective from other employees gives the employer an idea of the strengths and weakness of the employee (Heneman, 2002). The other form of data that can be used by the organization to establish pay for performance is to view the employee’s files and establish their commitment to the organization. By so doing, the employee sees the progress of the emp loyees and establishes areas where they should invest in relation to talent. Linking pay to objective criteria would

Monday, October 28, 2019

Government and Media in Cuba Essay Example for Free

Government and Media in Cuba Essay In between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean lies the island of Cuba. It is a small island with a total land area of 110,860 square km, yet it is so powerful enough to catch the attention of United States and to strengthen its security measures. The country was first ruled by the Spanish government and its history was marked by revolutions and uprising. Finally, in 1902, through the intervention of the US government, Cuba achieved its independence from the Spanish rule. However, the proclamation of independence did not end the uprising and rebellious activities because the country was not freed from leadership of corruption and military-rule. The real independence, as recognized and celebrated by Cubans, was achieved when Fidel Castro took office. Fidel Castro was the leader of rebel army that has been fighting the corrupt government and established a communist form of government. At present, Cuba is under the rule of Castro and the state remains to be a communist government having three branches namely; the chief of state, legislative and judiciary. General Raul Castro currently holds the chief of state which is comprised of Council of State and Council of Ministers (â€Å"The World Factbook†). On the economic aspect, the embargo that has been imposed upon the country has not yet been lifted. Currently, Venezuela is the main partner of the country and the main source of its petroleum needs. The living standard also remained low as a result of the embargo and discontinuance of foreign aids from several countries (â€Å"The World Factbook†). However, it has agricultural, trading, industrial and manufacturing enterprises where it sources out its economic and financial needs. As of July of the present year, the country is occupied by an estimate of 11,451,652 people having different racial descent including Africans, Spanish, Westerns and Asians (â€Å"The World Factbook†). Despite changes that have been introduced in the country, there are still issues that have been bothering the nation and even its citizens. Through its communist form of government, many activities were hardly exercised by the citizens because of government suppression. The most suppressed and monitored activity is the expression of ones thoughts and ideas. The right to express ones self is being curtailed by the government especially when it contains ideas that are against the government. The role of media is to protect the government as it is founded only to voice out words that the government desires to hear. In contrary to the role played by media in many countries, the Cuban media does not serve as the voice and protector of the people from the government but as an ally of the state. The treatment of the media people is also despicable in the eyes of the international community and of the journalists themselves. Hence, this paper will present the relationship of the media and government as well as the role it plays in the country. Concomitant to that is the life of journalists under the communist government of Cuba. Role of Media Media has been recognized as indispensable tool in communication. Mass media, as defined, is â€Å"the technological means of sending information, ideas, opinion, etc. through the mass communication device to a diverse audience† (â€Å"Impact of Media on Culture†). Various means used by mass media in transmitting information effectively and swiftly includes television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and internet. Notably, internet has been the most preferred and ideal means of mass media because of its ability of reaching a wider audience and is laxly monitored. In addition, internet is most preferred because it does not require profession to enable any individual to express his or her ideas. Among other nations, mass media is recognized as the fourth department of the government because of the role it plays in the political and social aspect. The mass media usually fills in the gap between the government and the people. It voices out the sentiments or thoughts of the people to the government while it also brings to the people the sentiments and plans of the government for the country. In some instances, mass media becomes a watchdog against government abuses and activities that are definitely out of reason. Furthermore, mass media has continually become the source of information about things, persons, places, and events, among others. Due to the indispensable role of mass media in the society, it need to be free and not controlled by any person or agency nor can be regulated by the government. Instead, it should be free in order to properly carry out its objective. Apart from that, it should not be controlled to ensure its impartiality and neutral role. Historical Background of Media in Cuba The epoch of mass media in Cuba can be traced back during the Spanish regime. The history also of the country’s press has undergone five periods (Browning). The Colonial period which stated from 1723 to 1868 is recognized as the first period. During that period, the first newspaper entitled Gazeta de la Habana was released in 1782 and become the nation’s publication (Browning). In 1790, the newspaper was followed by the very first magazine entitled Papel Periodico de la Habana (Browning). Both were regulated by the Spanish government but enjoyed less restriction because of the French Revolution affecting the government power of Spain over Cuba. The second period began in 1869 when Independence was first craved for and ended in 1902. The period is also called the Independence Revolution (Browning). During that period, press was given full freedom purposely to win the support of the reformists. Eventually periodicals containing ideas about reform began to evolve which includes El Cubano Libre, Estrella Solitaria, El Mambi, and El Boletin de la Guerra (Browning). Notably, during the second period, more revolutionaries were inspired to fight for their independence through the influence of Jose Marti who writes in several newspapers such as Patria, La Nacion, and New York Sun (Browning). The second period was marked by independent exercise of expression through publications that is direct, immediate and constant (Browning). The third period started when called the Republican period which started from 1902 and ended in 1930. The third period was ruled under the dictatorship of Gerardo Machado (Browning). During his era, freedom of expression was enjoyed by journalists. Newspapers, publications and other dailies thrived in the city of Cuba, Havana. This period was also marked by prosperity because political parties sponsored lots of publications and added to the benefit of the country’s economy. However, the exercise of the freedom was shaken by the plan of Machado to assimilate and provide government subsidies in exchange for support in 1928 (Browning). The following years was marked by economic downturn and political unrest that further led to the end of freedom enjoyed by the Cuban journalists. The fourth period started after Machado was overthrown in 1930 until 1959 (Browning). For 29 years, Batista ruled the nation. During the reign of Batista, the freedom of expression was experiencing threat of extinction. Though, technological innovations in journalism were introduced in the country. Among these includes increased commercial sophistication and steam-powered printing presses (Browning). However, at the latter part of Batista’s reign, the freedom of expression has finally faded because the government took control of the press. The fifth period started when Batista was overthrown by the communist group led by Castro in 1959 and continues at the present era (Browning). Since the beginning of Castro era, the freedom of expression was already curtailed. Eventually, the press and media were finally controlled by the government and journalists were not given freedom to voice out their thoughts against the government. The government’s strict control over media started in 1930. No independent journalists were freed to release publications which have the effect of criticizing the government. During that period, journalists tried to oppose the move of the government but to no avail. Finally, in 1990’s through the introduction of Internet, independent journalists have found new medium to castigate the government’s control of information (Browning). However, the media, private and public, are still under the control of the government. Information dissemination is still suffering strict regulation. Independent journalists also continue to struggle and risk their lives for an independent journalism. It can be observed that since the evolution of media, the government already held control of it. The changes in phases under several governments have made media limited and restricted. Some of the actions that the government had done in curtailing free press and flow of information were censorship and closure of newspapers (Browning). Until now, the freedom of information remains evasive and independence of journalists is still obscure to be enjoyed. Current Status of Media in Cuba In Art. 53 of the 1976 Cuban constitution, freedom of press and expression have been explicitly stated. However, such freedom is subjected to limitations as contained in Art. 62 Art. 5, further, contains that all communication should be controlled by the Communist Party for the benefit of the country (Browning). As an effect, information was regulated and controlled by the government. Journalists were also restrained from publicizing without the knowledge of the state. Apart from that, journalists were arbitrarily imprisoned for exercising their freedom of expression. Mass media in Cuba is definitely not free. In the field of print media, the nation maintains three newspapers which are fully regulated by the government. These nation’s newspapers are Granma, Juventud Rebelde and Trabajadores (Browning). Granma is the official publication of the Communist Party which was founded in 1965 (Browning). Juventud Rebelde usually contains the same youth-oriented stories covered in Granma but in simplified and summarized manner. The Trabajadores, on the other hand, is more politically inclined publication as it contains Marxist principles (Browning). Notably, Granma’s circulation has widened in some other parts of the world through the power of internet. The website is called Digital Granma Internacional (Browning). It is also noteworthy that during the recognition of the press, the Union de Periodistas de Cuba (Union of Cuban Journalists) was founded in July 15, 1963 (Browning). It is a nongovernment organization which engages the membership of professional journalists in order to work in distinguished media in the country. However, such organization has already been controlled by the government and its constitution also dictates that editorial line of journalists must follow that of government. On this era of technological innovations, independent journalists found internet as a means of voicing out their cries and redress against the Cuban government. However, the control of the government in curtailing unwanted information has also reached the World Wide Web and several independent journalists have been imprisoned for such exercise of expression. It is noteworthy that 21 journalists have been recorded to have been imprisoned after a closed-door trial (â€Å"Attacks on the Press in 2008†). Among the journalists that suffered the harshness of the state is Yoani Sanchez, 33-year old blogger (â€Å"Attacks on the Press in 2008†). Sanchez, at first, found freedom through her blog called Generation Y which contained observations about hurricane devastation, politically motivated arrest, and food shortages (â€Å"Attacks on the Press in 2008†). Her blog has been read abroad but has also been made known by the government. Thereafter, her passport was confiscated and was not allowed to leave the country. Today, state authorities has started to regulate internet cafes to track down individuals with the purpose of publishing dissent against the government through internet. Another independent journalist that has experienced the government’s cruelty is Victor Rolando Arroyo (â€Å"Cuban Journalist in Second Week of Hunger Strike†). Arroyo, who writes in Union de Periodistas y Escritores de Cuba, was arrested during the fight for independence press in March 2003 (â€Å"Cuban Journalist in Second Week of Hunger Strike†). He caught the world’s attention when he took hunger strike for almost two weeks because of the maltreatment and indecent treatment of prisoners like him.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Rural Way of Life in The River Warren :: warren

The Rural Way of Life in The River Warren Anyone who has taken a trip across the midwestern states has seen a different way of life. The River Warren gave the readers a sense of this rural way of life around the Two-Speed semi crash. Corn, wheat, and other agricultural products can be seen for miles and miles in all directions. As you drive through, you can see farmers hard at work, combines, tractors, and bailers all working at full speed, sun up to sun down. It doesn't take long too see how much these farms must work in order to survive. Why must these farmers devote so much of their lives to the profession? The answer to this question can become very complicated. When one sells any product, economics is the dominant factor with regards to price and the quantity of one's particular product. Many external factors play a huge role in the supply and demand of farm products. The focus of this paper is to explore some of the factors that make farming such a hard, volatile business. In the book, the Gruber family is a good example of a small farming family. Leo is the head of the household and, therefore, spends all or most of his time working on the farm. Jeff Gruber, Leo's son, speaks of his father's work in one passage. Leo stated his father's "capacity for work grated on him (76)." This family was always forced to work. At night, the tractor-trailer would come to load cattle. Jeff stated the days were full of "plowing, discing, harrowing, planting, cultivating, harvesting, and feeding the cattle (76)." Growing up in this setting meant work at a young age for the children. Jeff and his younger brother, Chris, are not exceptions. In the story, Chris is killed in a farming accident. Chris's youth and his inexperience with farm equipment were outweighed by the needs of the farm. Unfortunately, this kind of tragedy happens in real life as well. The book describes this way of life in many sections but never answered why life was like this. Why this muc h work was need was never answered. Now we will explore this question. First thing we need to look at are some of the external factors that apply to the family farm.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Report to the Management of Wilson, Tan & Associates

Introduction This report provides an evaluation of the performance of the performance of two U.K companies that operate in the fashion industry with the objective of identifying a suitable takeover target for Wilson & Tan Associates. The report covers the financial performance of the two companies based interpreted in the context of the business environment in which they operate. The two companies included in the report include Supergroup Plc and Mulberry Plc. The analysis is based on the group statement of financial position as at 2011 and 2010 and the group income statement for the years ending 2010 and 2011. The rest of the report is organised as follows: section 2 focuses on analysing the financial performance of both companies in relation to their industry and economic environment; and section 3 provides conclusions and recommendations on which company to take over. Analysis of the Performance of Supergroup Plc and Mulberry Plc Appendix 1 contains the ratios of both companies over the period 2010 and 2011. The ratios cover a variety of areas including profitability, liquidity, management efficiency and long-term solvency.ProfitabilityThe ability of a company to generate a return on invested capital is a critical factor in determining the value of the company. Profitability serves as a measure of the competitive position of a company as well as the quality of the management (Penman, 2007; Robinson et al., 2009). It can be observed from appendix 1 that overall profitability of Mulberry Plc is better than that of Supergroup Plc. Supergroup Plc realised a gross profit margin of 55.82% in 2011 up by 6% from its 2010 figure of 52.58%. Despite this high ratio, that of Mulberry Plc was high. The company realised a gross profit margin of 65.4% in 2011 up 11% from its 2010 figure of 59.0%. The operating profit margin of Supergroup Plc was higher than that of Mulberry Plc for both 2011 and 201. However, Mulberry Plc r ealised a greater improvement in the operating profit margin from 2010 to 2011. If the company continues with this spirit it will soon outperform Supergroup Plc. In terms of the net profit margin, return on assets, and return on equity, Mulberry Plc outperformed Supergroup Plc. In addition, Mulberry Plc witnessed a significant improvement in these ratios from 2010 to 2011 while Supergroup Plc witnessed a significant decline in these ratios over the same period. With respect to profitability, both companies appear to be profitable. However, the performance of Mulberry Plc surpasses that of Supergroup Plc. The high profitability observed for these two companies can be attributed to positive developments in the fashion industry. Despite the poor economic climate, the U.K fashion industry is experiencing a growth in revenue. The U.K remains a major manufacturer of clothing and high quality fabrics. The combined textile and clothing industry in the U.K is valued at ?8.5billion worth of goods. Retail sales in the fashion industry in 2009 were approximately ?285billion. Export sales amounted to approximately ?7.3billion at manufacturer’s prices with the U.S.A, Japan, Russia, France, Italy the Middle East, Hong Kong and China being major export destinations (Fashion United, 2011). Rising trends in both export and domestic sales explain why companies in the industry are experiencing increasing profit margins and return on investment as indicated by the ratios of Supergroup Plc and Mulberry Group Plc.LiquidityLiquidity measures a firm’s ability to meet its current financial oblig ations. It is a measure of how well the firm can pay its short-term creditors with its current assets without having to liquidate its non-current assets. In order words, liquidity measures how quickly the company converts assets into cash (Myers and Brealey, 2002; Penman, 2007). Appendix 1 also presents liquidity ratios for Supergroup Plc and Mulberry Plc. It can be observed that Supergroup Plc has a better liquidity position than Mulberry Plc. Supergroup Plc had a current ratio of 2.81 in 2011 up 1% from 2.79 in 2010. On the contrary, Mulberry Plc had a current ratio of 1.62 in 2011 down 24% from 2010. The quick ratio of Supergroup Plc was 1.59 in 2011 down 17% from 1.91 in 2010 compared to a quick ratio of 0.97 for Mulberry plc in 2011 down 34% from 1.48 in 2010. Considering only the current and quick ratios, it can be observed that Supergroup plc can meet its current liabilities with its current assets better than Mulberry plc can do. The cash ratio for both companies in 2011 was less than 1.0 suggesting that cash and cash equivalents are not enough to meet current liabilities. This means that if both companies suffer a write-down in the value of inventory or an increase in bad debts, they would be unable to meet their current liabilities with their current base of cash and cash equivalents. Overall, the liquidity position for both companies is declining although Supergroup Plc appears to be doing better than Mulberry Plc. The deteriorating liquidity for both companies can be attributed to the current economic climate. Bank lending has declined significantly as a result of the global financial crisis. Arranging an overdraft facility has become more difficult compared to what use to be the case before the global financial crisis. Declining liquidity too can be as a result of the constant change in the fashion industry. Clothing inventory becomes obsolete too quickly. This suggests slow moving inventory can result to liquidity constraints for companies that operate in the fashion industry.Management EfficiencyEfficiency ratios are aimed at understanding how well a company manages its activities especially how it efficiently manages its assets. Appendix 1 illustrates a number of efficiency ratios for Supergoup Plc and Mulberry Plc. The inventory turnover of Supergroup plc declined from by 36% from 3.13times in 2010 to 2.01times in 2011. Supergroup is able to turnover more inventory than Mulberry plc who s aw a decline in inventory turnover by 42% from 3.25times in 2010 to 1.88 times in 2011. The decline in the number of times that inventory is turned over led to an increase in the number of days that inventory is outstanding by 56% from 117 days in 2010 to 182days in 2011 for Supergroup Plc and by 73 % from 112 days in 2010 to 194 days in 2011 for Mulberry Plc. This decline in inventory turnover for both companies helps to explain why the liquidity ratios declined. Both companies have increased the number of days that inventory is held thus increasing the probability that inventory may become obsolete and thus result to a deterioration in its value. As far as inventory turnover is concerned, the management of Supergroup Plc is more efficient. The receivables turnover of Mulberry Plc however, is better than that of Supergroup Plc. Mulberry Plc is able to collect its outstanding receivables faster than Supergroup Plc can do. This is reflected in the lower number of days that its receiv ables remain outstanding compared to Mulberry Plc. The purchases turnover of Supergroup Plc is higher than that of Mulberry Plc. In addition, the number of days of payables of Supergroup Plc is higher than that of Mulberry Plc. This suggests that Mulberry Plc is either defaulting on its payments or has a higher bargaining power over its suppliers. The results for Supergroup Plc suggest that it either has a lower bargaining power or does not default on its short term debts. In terms of Payables turnover and receivables turnover, Mulberry Plc outperformed Supergroup plc indicating that the management of Mulberry plc is more efficient in managing its assets than Supergroup plc. Looking at the working capital, fixed asset, and total asset turnover, it can be observed that the performance of Mulberry Plc was better than that of Supergroup plc.Long-term SolvencyThe solvency ratios indicate that Mulberry Plc is in a better solvency position than Supergroup Plc. The company has no long-term debt which makes its debt-to-equity and debt-to-capital ratios equal to zero. Conclusions and Recommendations One can conclude from the above analysis that Mulberry Plc performed better than Supergroup plc over the 2 year period under investigation. While Supergroup plc appears to have a better liquidity position than Mulberry plc, Mulberry plc is more profitable, has a better management and is in a better solvency position than Supergroup Plc. Given its more efficient management, it can work on its liquidity position and improve in subsequent years. In the light of these findings, this report considers Mulberry Plc a better takeover target and thus recommends that the management of Wilson, Tan & Associates should consider placing a takeover bid for it. References Fashion United (2011) Facts and Figures in the UK fashion industry, available online at:, [accessed: 1st February 2012]. Myers, S. C. Brealey, R. A. (2002). Principles of Corporate Finance. 7th Edition McGraw-Hill. Penman, S. (2007) Financial Statements Analysis and Securities Valuation.3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill. Robinson, T. R., Greuning, J. H., Henry, E., Broihahn, M. A. (2009), â€Å"Financial Analysis Techniques† in Financial Reporting and Analysis, CFA Program Curriculum, vol. 3, Pearson Custom Publishing.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Alternative fuel for cars – Research Proposal

This research proposal is written for proposing further research on the suitable and economically sustainable alternative fuel for cars. This study was taken as need of hour to reduce the cost towards oil imports and control pollution, which if not controlled now, will lead to worst Global Warming. Basically this proposal is based on the current and projected car population. To be sustainable and economical, the researcher has taken the study envisaging on the car market. The cars are major attributors to emission. Since car population density is directly proportional to the human population density, there will be more harm to the people.Car population and projections Number of cars in the developing world will increase 300% between 1995 and 2020. The growth in automobile population is growing at slightly less than twice the rate of the human population in North America and Western Europe. The growth of cars in developing countries is proliferating due to economic boom. There have be en no oil field discoveries since 1988 and there will be a global decline in oil production within 15 to 20 years. It is projected that by 2020 there will be well over 1. 1 billion motor vehicles (cars) in the world. Riley, R (2006).World car population. Retrieved April 7, 2008, Web site: http://www. rqriley. com/sld002. htm There were 200 million cars in 1970 and 500 million cars in 1990. During 1997 there were 600 million cars and by 2027 the projection is double the figure of 1997 data. Elert, G (2003). Number of cars. Retrieved April 7, 2008, Web site: http://hypertextbook. com/facts/2001/MarinaStasenko. shtml Current Global warming and its effect and projection CO2 had varied only about 5 percent from the last ice age (10,000 years ago) to the industrial revolution year in the last century.The CO2 level in atmosphere from the industrial revolution year to 2030 is estimated to be doubled. That means within 150 years, the CO2 level in atmosphere will be doubled. Main reason and o ne of the biggest single contributors for this change is emission from the burning of fossil fuels. We were able to control emissions by 95% in the last 20 years by the state of art emission control systems and research on fuel ingredients which resulted to lesser emissions. But looking at the projected car population the advantage gained through the emission control will be wiped off in a decade. Riley, R (2006).World car population. Retrieved April 7, 2008, Web site: http:// www. rqriley. com/moma2. htm Different alternative fuels –Merits and Demerits Ethanol –Produced from starch crops like corn and other crops like sugar beets, cane or cellulose materials, fast growing trees and grasses. It produces less green house gas emissions than conventional fuel. One third of US gasoline contains ethanol in a low level blend to reduce air pollution. The disadvantage is, it gives lesser mileage because of its lower energy content than straight petrol. Bio diesel – Prod uced from vegetable oils and animal fats.It produces less air pollution than petroleum based diesel. Production is expensive. Cost can be brought done by doing research. No need to modify the engines. Good lubricant to the engine. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)-Fossil fuel, generates less air pollutants. It is expensive. Compressed natural gas (CNG) – It produces very low level of pollution. Available refuelling station is still a problem. The storage place in the car occupies more space. Not able to go long distance because of refuelling station availability problem. Hydrogen-It can be produced from fossil fuels, nuclear power or from renewable resources like hydropower.Fuel cell vehicles powered by pure hydrogen emit no harmful air pollutants. Methanol – It is also known as wood alcohol. Methanol is produced by a process using natural gas as a feedstock. It will contaminate ground water. It gives very less mileage. Electricity-It is very silent and no pollution at all . The cost of Vehicle fitted with electric motor is in higher side, the battery charging time is too long. It takes even 8-10 hours to fully charge. The cost of running the car is very cheap. It is only good for city riding with lesser kilometre. For a long distance, it cannot be used because recharging is required for every 150 km.Hybrid cars- It uses combination of small internal combustion engine and an electric motor. It switches between IC engine and electric motors depending on the terrains and speeds. The cars with this type of arrangement are getting popular. The good example for this is Toyota Prius Ron giles (2006), Web extension to Babyboomers, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from the World Wide Web:http://www. babyboomersguide. co. nz/Articles/Alternative+Fuels. html Methodology The above said alternate fuels are under continuous research and until now no breakthrough outcomes has been implementation.The problems with the above fuels are the cost of production of fuel itself. It is costlier than petrol and diesel, the performance does not match with the existing petrol and diesel engines, engine modification cost is too high to accommodate the alternative fuel, refilling, recharging and distribution problem exists. Hence there is no practical breakthrough yet. Already all car manufacturers have invested huge money, time and effort in developing engines for performance and getting succeeded in terms of better torque, noise level, better pickup and mileage.To cope up with this, the research should be practicable and down to earth without any major investment. My proposal My proposal is for Bio Diesel. The reason for selecting for further research is, it is viable, practicable and affordable alternative fuel with no major research cost comparing with research cost of other alternative fuels. By using Bio Diesel there is no pollution problem, no modification of existing car engines for using the same. Only slight adjustments required. It lubricates the engines thus gives longer life to it. The existing distribution system of petrol pumps can be used.It performs better at par with petrol and diesel. It is very safe in transportation better than petrol and diesel because of high flash point. Bio Diesel works well with new technologies such as catalysts. The areas where the research is required is only on ensuring abundant economical availability of the inputs and reducing cost of production by looking into the process . This researcher strongly recommends research on Bio Diesel as future alternative fuel for cars to control the petrol, diesel prices and reduce emission which threatens in the form of Global Warming.References Web extension to National Biodiesel Board, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from the World Wide Web: http://www. biodiesel. org/ Web extension to Bio Diesel Now, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from the World Wide Web:http://www. biodieselnow. com/ Ron giles. (2006). Web extension to Babyboomers, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from the World Wide Web:http://www. babyboomersguide. co. nz/Articles/Alternative+Fuels. html Web extension to Car Stuff, Retrived April 7,2008 from the World Wide Web:http://www. car-stuff. com/carlinks/future. htm About. Inc. (2008). Web extension to, Retrieved April,7 2008 from world web http://cars. about. com/od/alternativetransport/ US Department of Energy. (2007, November,20), Web extension to Alternative and Advanced fuels , Retrived April 7, 2008 from the World wide web: http://www. eere. energy. gov/afdc/fuels/ Edumands Inc. (2007). Web extension to China’s car boom:Privately owned car, Retrived April 7, 2008 from World Wide Web: http://www. edmunds. com/insideline/do/News/articleId=121598 Fuel Economy (2007),Web extension to Alternative fuels, Retrieved April 7, 2008 from World Wide Web: http://www. shtml Hydrogen boost. (2007). Web extension to What is the Hydrogen-Boost Mileage Enhancement System? Retrieved April 7, 2008 from World Wi de Web: www. hydrogen-boost. com/ About. Com (2008). Web extension to Alternative fulesyou’re your car and gasoline saving, Retrived April 7,2008 from World Wide Web,http://saveenergy. about. com/od/fuelingyourautomobile/Alternative_Fuels_for_your_Car_and_Gasoline_Savings. htm About. Com (2008). Web extension to Bio Diesel, Retrived April 7,2008 from http://saveenergy. about. com/od/fuelingyourautomobile/g/biodiesel. htm

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

A Critical Review of Native Son essays

A Critical Review of Native Son essays 1. Born on September 4th, 1908, Richard Wright was born in Roxie, Mississippi (outside of Natchez) on a plantation where his illiterate father was a sharecropper. Wright was raised by his relatives at by the age of 17, he was ready to get out into the world. He headed into Memphis, Tennessee (his relatives lived right outside the city) where he worked odd jobs and educated himself. He read array of novels as he grew up and his education helped him realize the unjust ways of segregation. In 1927, Wright moved to Chicago after the peak of the Harlem Renaissance (a pivotal time for African Americans to express themselves through music, writings, and art). In Chicago, he worked as a postal worker, but was laid off with the depression. Wright then joined the Federal Writers Project, a state sponsored guild for authors, in which Wright composed his first novel, Uncle Toms Children. During this time, Wright joined the Communist party, which was often carried out into his writings. By 1939, Wright had moved to New York City and kept ties with the party for only a few more years. He married in 1941, and had left the communist party by 1944. During World War II, Wright lectured around New York. With the end of the War, Wright moved to France in 1947 where he continued to write his novels, which often contained themes of racism, poverty, and political matters. His books were often partly based on his life and what he had observed in his lifetime. Wright was the first African American author to be featured in the Book of the Month Club for his novel Native Son. In 1995, all of Wrights books were reissued in 1995 in their original context after being censored by publishers for the explicit nature of his novels (which contained themes of sexual, Communist, and racial content). However, Wright was unable to see the reissued books, for Wright was laid to rest in 1960. 2. Written in 1940, Native Son was composed as...

Monday, October 21, 2019

10 Fascinating Facts About Butterflies

10 Fascinating Facts About Butterflies People love watching colorful butterflies float from flower to flower. From the tiniest blues to the largest swallowtails,  how much do you really know about these insects? Here are 10 fascinating facts about butterflies. Butterfly wings are transparent How can that be? We know butterflies as perhaps the most colorful, vibrant insects around! A butterflys wings are covered by thousands of tiny scales, and these scales reflect light in different colors. But underneath all of those scales, a  butterfly wing is actually formed by layers of chitin, the same protein that makes up an insects exoskeleton. These layers are so thin you can see right through them. As a butterfly ages, scales fall off the wings, leaving spots of transparency where the chitin layer is exposed. Butterflies taste with their feet Butterflies have taste receptors on their feet to help them find their host plants and locate food. A female butterfly lands on different plants, drumming the leaves with her feet until the plant releases its juices. Spines on the back of her legs have chemoreceptors that detect the right match of plant chemicals. When she identified the right plant, she lays her eggs. A butterfly will also step on its food, using organs that sense dissolved sugars to taste food sources like fermenting fruit. Butterflies live on an all-liquid diet Speaking of butterflies eating, adult butterflies can only feed on liquids, usually nectar. Their mouthparts are modified to enable them to drink, but they cant chew solids. A proboscis, which functions as a drinking straw, stays curled up under the butterflys chin until it finds a source of nectar or other liquid nutrition. It then unfurls the long, tubular structure and sips up a meal. A few butterflies feed on sap, and some even resort to sipping from decaying carrion. No matter the meal, they suck it up a straw. A butterfly must assemble its proboscis as soon as it emerges from the chrysalis A butterfly that cant drink nectar is doomed. One of its first jobs as an adult butterfly is to assemble its mouthparts. When a new adult emerges from the pupal case or chrysalis, its mouth is in two pieces. Using palpi located adjacent to the proboscis, the butterfly begins working the two parts together to form a single, tubular proboscis. You may see a newly emerged butterfly curling and uncurling the proboscis over and over, testing it out. Butterflies drink from mud puddles A butterfly cannot live on sugar alone; it needs minerals, too. To supplement its diet of nectar, a butterfly will occasionally sip from mud puddles, which are rich in minerals and salts. This behavior, called puddling, occurs more often in male butterflies, which incorporate the minerals into their sperm. These nutrients are then transferred to the female during mating, and help improve the viability of her eggs. Butterflies cant fly if theyre cold Butterflies need an ideal body temperature of about 85 ºF to fly. Since theyre cold-blooded animals, they cant regulate their own body temperatures. The surrounding air temperature has a big impact on their ability to function. If the air temperature falls below 55 ºF, butterflies are rendered immobile, unable to flee from predators or feed. When air temperatures range between 82 º-100 ºF, butterflies can fly with ease. Cooler days require a butterfly to warm up its flight muscles, either by shivering or basking in the sun. Even sun-loving butterflies can get overheated when temperatures soar above 100 °Ã‚  F and may seek shade to cool down.   A newly emerged butterfly cant fly Inside the chrysalis, a developing butterfly waits to emerge with its wings collapsed around its body. When it finally breaks free of the pupal case, it greets the world with tiny, shriveled wings. The butterfly must immediately pump body fluid through its wing veins to expand them. Once its wings reach full-size, the butterfly must rest for a few hours to allow its body to dry and harden before it can take its first flight. Butterflies live just a few weeks, usually Once it emerges from its chrysalis as an adult, a butterfly has only 2-4 short weeks to live, in most cases. During that time, it focuses all its energy on two tasks – eating and mating. Some of the smallest butterflies, the blues, may only survive a few days. Butterflies that overwinter as adults, like monarchs and mourning cloaks, can live as long as 9 months. Butterflies are nearsighted, but they can see and discriminate a lot of colors Within about 10-12 feet, butterfly eyesight is quite good. Anything beyond that distance gets a little blurry to a butterfly, though. Butterflies rely on their eyesight for vital tasks, like finding mates of the same species and finding flowers on which to feed. In addition to seeing some of the colors we can see, butterflies can see a range of ultraviolet colors invisible to the human eye. The butterflies themselves may have ultraviolet markings on their wings to help them identify one another and locate potential mates. Flowers, too, display ultraviolet markings that act as traffic signals to incoming pollinators like butterflies – pollinate me! Butterflies employ all kinds of tricks to keep from being eaten Butterflies rank pretty low on the food chain, with lots of hungry predators happy to make a meal of them. Some butterflies fold their wings to blend into the background, using camouflage to render themselves all but invisible to predators. Others try the opposite strategy, wearing vibrant colors and patterns that boldly announce their presence. Bright colored insects often pack a toxic punch if eaten, so predators learn to avoid them. Some butterflies arent toxic at all, but pattern themselves after other species known for their toxicity. By mimicking their foul-tasting cousins, they repel predators.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

DailyWritingTips Crosses The 20,000 Subscribers Mark

DailyWritingTips Crosses The 20,000 Subscribers Mark DailyWritingTips Crosses The 20,000 Subscribers Mark DailyWritingTips Crosses The 20,000 Subscribers Mark By Daniel Scocco I am glad to say that this week our blog crossed 20,000 subscribers. If you are one of them, thank you! If you are not, what are you waiting for? You can subscribe and keep updated with all our posts, via RSS, email or Twitter. And yeah, it is completely free. Now let me share with you guys how it all started. Early in 2007 my blog was growing quite fast. As the name implies, my goal there is to help other bloggers, and I realized that most people around could use a brush-up on their writing skills. Initially I was not sure if I should publish the writing tips on that same blog or start a new blog exclusively for that purpose. I ended opting for the latter, and was born. English is my second language, so instead of writing the content myself I decided to bring some writers aboard. Maeve Maddox was one of them, and boy did she know her stuff. Her very first post, titled Let the Word Do the Work, received over 5,000 visitors and many comments in a matter of 24 hours. Along the years we also had other talented writers contributing to the blog, but Maeve was the most prolific one, and now she is the editor in chief. Once in a while I chime in with a post or two (like this one), but she is in charge of our core content. And that is where we are right now. But stay tuned, because we have a lot of great content in the pipeline for you! Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the General category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Definitely use "the" or "a"Capitalization Rules for Names of Historical Periods and MovementsUsing Writing Bursts to Generate Ideas and Enthusiasm

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Based on DQ1rw, DQ2Bridget Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Based on DQ1rw, DQ2Bridget - Essay Example The recruitment will be based on talents and skills of employees in question. The recruits will be appointed on the basis of ability to make predictions based on the trends experienced currently, interact well with the existing strategic planners and implementers in the organization, and use of statistical models and expert judgments. These employees will be subjected through a thorough training before absorption. The employees will be trained and orientated about the organization’s activities. They will be evaluated using a SWOT analysis. This will be done as on job training and job rotation so as to enable them capture the idea and concept of the organization. Eventually the right persons will be placed in the right positions matching their talents, skills, qualifications, and training. After a significant period on job, there will be an evaluation of their performance carried out. Their future needs will be anticipated considering the past performance they shown with the ex isting needs. The previous trends involved in promotions and quitting will then be assessed and considered. After an extensive appraisal of the employee performance, the organization then decides on the employee with diverse skills and abilities to be placed in other places (McGregor, 2005). Both Russia and China are famous for robust potential in earnings. However, the exports from China are much more than those from Russia. Before the reforms in China back in 1978, the economy relied much on vestiges of the Maoism whose communism tenets determined a common pay for every rank in the society, however, the high ranking officials and power elite still benefited greatly from the sundry perks and preferential treatments they got. On the other hand, Russian economy is mortgage oriented. There are favorable employee rates though (Phatak et al., 2009). Therefore Russia is considered much more attractive in terms of â€Å"the right

Friday, October 18, 2019

Satisfactory Data Sheet Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Satisfactory Data Sheet - Essay Example Therefore, the substance is label correctly and should note be disputed. Thus, the word â€Å"Warning† on the supplier SDS is not correct; hence, it should be replaced by â€Å"caution† from the CLP database. The following is the advice to the procurement team and the manufacturing managers: Companies should be held responsible for the management of risks regarding chemicals and the provision of safety information on them. Importers and manufacturers must gather and communicate on the ingredients and properties of chemicals. This is important so that users can know how best to handle them with utmost care. The regulations of Classification, labeling and Packaging stipulate that Hazards must be communicated clearly to worker and consumers of the member states. They must single out any chemical substance property with potential dangers to animals, human and the environment (European Chemical Agency, 2014). Classification must be done in line with the hazards identified. Labelling should be done properly so that buyers or consumers can read and understand their effects clearly. In Biocidal products regulation, the suppliers must provide information on the active biocidal substances. This is because they all need authorization from ECHA on top of the national authority for them to be released to the market (ECHA, 2014). Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). (2014). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Retrieved from:

Stats26 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Stats26 - Essay Example The results of a two-factor analysis of variance produce df = 1, 28 for the F-ratio for factor A, df = 2, 28 for the F-ratio for factor B, and df = 2, 28 for the AÃâ€" B interaction. Based on this information, what is the total number of different treatment conditions that were compared in the study? In a line graph showing the results from a two-factor experiment, the levels of factor B are presented on the X-axis and the line for A1 is consistently 5 points higher than the line for A2. What result is indicated by this pattern? A two-factor study with two levels of factor A and three levels of factor B uses a separate group of n = 5 participants in each treatment condition. How many participants are needed for the entire study? If the mean and variance are computed for each sample in an independent-measures two-factor experiment, then which of the following types of sample data will tend to produce large F-ratios for the two-factor ANOVA? The following data represent the means for each treatment condition in a two-factor experiment. Note that one mean is not given. What value of the missing mean will result in no main effect for factor A? The following data represent the means for each treatment condition in a two-factor experiment. Note that one mean is not given. What value of the missing mean will result in no main effect for factor B? 1. The results from a two-factor experiment can be presented in a matrix with the levels of factor A forming the rows and the levels of factor B forming the columns, with a separate sample in each of the matrix cells. Using this matrix structure, describe the null hypothesis for each of the three F-ratios computed in the two-factor analysis. (3) A X B-interaction: The null hypothesis is that there is no interaction between factors A and B. All the mean differences between treatment conditions are explained by the main effects of the two factors. 3. The following table summarizes the results of a

Thursday, October 17, 2019

English composition II Unit 5 Db Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

English composition II Unit 5 Db - Essay Example Mine was an analytical research paper, and so, I had to offer the academic community a fresh look at the essential issue I was researching. Besides, the subject was not controversial, and that is the reason why I had to persuade the audience on the importance of my ideas. Choosing a topic was my next step, and I also stated my working thesis statement inform of a question, since I was dealing with an analytical research paper. Actual research followed, whereby, I had to look for various sources in order to get information. I discovered that primary sources are better than secondary sources, because they enable a researcher to get close to the source as possible (, 2009). Some of the primary sources I used included interviews, which are highly effective. On the other hand, I used secondary sources, such as newspapers, magazines, articles, journals, websites and books. I read over all the sources and took outstanding notes. In addition, I included page numbers and internet links on all essential information I came across. The next thing was drafting an outline, which included the thesis statement, facts and main points, as well as evidence supporting the main points. I also supported my assertions with sources, both primary and secondary. I later wrote a rough draft, which contained three parts; introduction, body and conclusion. The next step was extremely crucial since it involved revising and editing the research paper to get a final draft. I read through the paper five times and made sure all assertions were supported by sources. Besides, I ensured that there was a transition between the main points and no detail was left out. I checked grammar, spelling, punctuation and word choice errors. I focused on the general appearance of the text so as to do effective editing of the research paper. In

Contemporary Hero's Quest - Harry Potter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Contemporary Hero's Quest - Harry Potter - Essay Example In spite of them being from the wizarding world just like Harry, their efforts unfortunately, cannot match that of Voldermort’s powers. They, therefore, give up and later earn his trust and further help and prepare him for the journey to the unknown world to seek help (Campbell, 2003). In the initiation, the hero experiences trials on the way that makes him weak and vulnerable to the evil forces. He undergoes a change where he discovers a new self with divine supernatural ability. The hero meets two goddesses; the first enlightens him of his new adventure while the second tries to mislead him to give up his quest. Through separation, the hero becomes aware of the new forbidden wizarding world. He enters a threshold-entrance to the wizard world of his destination. Transformation occurs after he crosses the threshold, moves into the world of darkness where he undergoes a rebirth and his old self-dies (Campbell, 2003). He eventually receives a prize he has longed for and reluctantly returns with his new found powers and wisdom from forbidden world. He encounters a chase by the evil forces on his way back, but he quickly adapts to his new self and survives the chase crosses the threshold back to the new world. The power that the hero returns with eventually saves the world from the evil forces (Campbell,

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

English composition II Unit 5 Db Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

English composition II Unit 5 Db - Essay Example Mine was an analytical research paper, and so, I had to offer the academic community a fresh look at the essential issue I was researching. Besides, the subject was not controversial, and that is the reason why I had to persuade the audience on the importance of my ideas. Choosing a topic was my next step, and I also stated my working thesis statement inform of a question, since I was dealing with an analytical research paper. Actual research followed, whereby, I had to look for various sources in order to get information. I discovered that primary sources are better than secondary sources, because they enable a researcher to get close to the source as possible (, 2009). Some of the primary sources I used included interviews, which are highly effective. On the other hand, I used secondary sources, such as newspapers, magazines, articles, journals, websites and books. I read over all the sources and took outstanding notes. In addition, I included page numbers and internet links on all essential information I came across. The next thing was drafting an outline, which included the thesis statement, facts and main points, as well as evidence supporting the main points. I also supported my assertions with sources, both primary and secondary. I later wrote a rough draft, which contained three parts; introduction, body and conclusion. The next step was extremely crucial since it involved revising and editing the research paper to get a final draft. I read through the paper five times and made sure all assertions were supported by sources. Besides, I ensured that there was a transition between the main points and no detail was left out. I checked grammar, spelling, punctuation and word choice errors. I focused on the general appearance of the text so as to do effective editing of the research paper. In

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

All is about Malala Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

All is about Malala - Essay Example The writer then twists the situation, and presents a sudden change in the living condition of Malala where he presents the fact that she is shot. The reader is shocked to learn that a person who is so capable of bring a change has been crippled by an outsider. The consequence of using this technique is the building of a scenario that portrays ‘tragedy’; humans when faced with tragic situations are programmed to display feelings of sympathy. Later on in the text, the writer mentions her recovery from injury in such a dramatic way where instead of admiring the efforts of the medical experts, the focus is on Malala’s recovery; which is done intentionally to support the earlier claim of Malala being a very capable person. Here again, the writer manages to gain sympathy of the reader by implying that the bad-element of the society is defeated by the good element. For the sake of comparison and contrast, the case of Emma Sulkowicz is taken as parallel to Malala’s case in this task. Emma was raped by a classfellow of hers on her first day; this incident happened on the campus. Although she remained quiet in the start, which was largely due to her dread of becoming a victim of her offender again, she ultimately managed to report the incident to the authorities after she realized that two of her other classfellows had also gone through the same misery and pain. As opposed to Malala’s case, where she was the only person who stood to oppose the negatively affecting Talibans, Emma only spoke when she was sure that she was not alone and there are other people who were suffering from the same problem. Emma spoke against injustice by seeking help from the authorities and the judicial system of the country. This was largely due to the existence of infrastructure that assists people in getting justice. Malala on the other hand

Monday, October 14, 2019

Three Fundamental Concepts of Economics Essay Example for Free

Three Fundamental Concepts of Economics Essay 1. Human wants. —Two characteristics of human wants possess great importance in their bearing upon the production and consumption of wealth. First, there seems to be no limit to the number of wants of which a human being is capable. This is one reason why most people find saving so difcult; any growth of income is speedily outdistanced by the growth of wants. This characteristic also ex-plains why a general overproduction of wealth is impossible; there may be too much of one thing but not too much of all things. It also accounts for the al-most infinite variety of goods found in the markets of any modern city. Second, the continued gratification of any single want finally leads to satiety and may become even tedious and irksome. It is a well-known fact of everyday life that any pleasure loses its zest if indulged in too long. 2. Law of diminishing utility. —The fact that we get less and less satisfaction out of the continued gratification of any single want is so important that it is laid down as a fundamental proposition and is known as the law of diminishing utility. It may be stated as follows: The intensity of any utility, or of a mans desire for any good, tends to decline as he consumes successive units of it. This law doubtless has both a physiological and a psychological basis. Sports weary certain muscles and finally cease to give pleasure. The hungry man gets great satisfaction out of the first few minutes of his dinner, but his enjoyment of the meal soon begins to decline. A man who is already the owner of a silk hat, is not profusely grateful if a friend sends him a second silk hat as a Christmas gift, and if he gets a third on his next birthday he will probably look at it gloomily and wonder if he has some friend or relative whose head it will fit, for to him it is only a nuisance. This principle of diminishing utility applies with varying force in the case of different articles and different men. In the case of the silk hat, the utility declines very rapidly as the supply is increased. In the case of shirts the decline will be much less rapid. To the man who has only one shirt it will possess very great utility; he will prize it much more than he would any one shirt if he had twelve in his bureau drawer. It may be said that up to a certain point there is possible an increase in the supply of any commodity in our possession without any appreciable decline in its utility. We want a certain number of suits of clothes and a house with a certain number of rooms. Additional clothing and additional space in our house would be only a burden, something to be cared for but not wanted. Bread, potatoes and beans are nourishing. Potatoes and beans in ordinary times are cheap. If the human race would be satisfied with such food, the population of the earth might be doubled and yet all be well fed; but we demand variety in food and would protest vigorously if the same rations were placed before us day after day. . The law of demand and supply. —Every business man knows that the value or price of any article depends upon the demand for and supply of it. The law of demand and supply may be briefly stated as follows: The price or value of any article tends to vary directly with the demand and inversely with the supply; increasing or declining as the demand increases or declines, but tending to rise as the sup-ply declines and to fall as the supply increases. T he reader must not think of this law as a complete explanation of value. It is not in any sense a theory of value. It merely states in general terms a truth well known to all men familiar with the operations of trade and industry. If we analyze this law we run up against some difficult questions. What is meant by demand? Why does the value rise when the demand increases? Why does the value tend to fall when the supply increases? We find also that there is a curious interaction between value on the one hand and demand and supply on the other. If the price of an article is lowered, we discover that the demand for it tends to increase and that at the same time the supply tends to decrease. We will not undertake to discuss all these problems in this chapter, but will be satisfied with an examination of the terms demand and supply. 4. Analysis of demand. —The desire for a commodity is not in itself an economic demand for it. No matter how much a man may want an automobile, his desire can have no effect upon the prices or value of automobiles unless be has the necessary means of payment. Desire must be accompanied by the necessary purchasing power before it can become economic or effective demand, or have any influence in the market. The second point to notice in connection with demand is that it varies with the price. For example, if the price of automobiles and. the cost of operation could be cut one-half, there would undoubtedly be a great increase in the demand for automobiles and many more cars would, be made and sold. On the other hand, if any conditions cause the prices of automobiles and gasolene to be advanced, the tendency will be toward a weaker demand and smaller sales. Hence when we speak of the demand for any article, manifestly we must always have in mind a certain price, for the demand varies with the price. There is only one way of measuring the demand for an article at any given price, and that is by the quantity of it which is sold at that price. That shows how many people are willing to buy at such a price. Hence it is possible for us to define demand as being the amount of goods which people are willing to take at a given price. 5. Analysis of supply. The word supply as commonly used includes the entire stock of goods within reach of the market, but economists use it in a stricter sense, meaning by it only that portion of the entire stock which is actually offered for sale at a given price. The entire stock of wheat, for example, in a country might be 500,000 bushels and the price $2. If only 100,000 bushels were offered for sale, that would be the economic or effective supply at that price, and if 100,000 bushels were sold at that price, t hat would constitute also the economic demand. Thus in our analysis of demand and supply, we find that at any particular time and price they are measured by the same quantity of goods. This conclusion is not remarkable, for a mans purchasing power depends upon the goods he possesses, plus his credit or borrowing power which in turn depends on his power to produce in the future. How he shall use it is determined by his wants. A farmer going to market with 10 bushels of potatoes, intending to sell them and purchase groceries with the proceeds, is increasing the supply of potatoes in the market and the demand for certain groceries. To the buyers of potatoes his load constitutes an addition to the sup-ply, but to the grocer it represents a demand for certain groceries. Money is merely the medium by which the exchanges are effected; the economic demand for goods is the goods that are in the buyers possession. In modern business the buyer always goes to market equipped with money or credit, and this he has obtained either by the production of goods or by the performance of valuable services. 6. Potential demand and supply. —That part of the stock of an article which is not offered for sale at a given price is sometimes called the potential sup-ply. When would-be buyers of an article are not quite satisfied with the present price and hold back for a lower price, this is referred to as the potential demand. Dealers in any article when determining what price they may hope for naturally take into account,, so far as possible, the intensity of the potential demand and the amount of the potential supply. The great enlargement of cold storage and ware-housing facilities in recent years has made the potential supply of many commodities exceedingly important. The thrifty farmer is no longer compelled to market all his eggs. in the spring and summer, nor all his potatoes and grain crops in the fall. In normal times this withholding of foodstuffs from the market, so that they are not part of the effective supply, tends, first toward the steadying of prices and, second toward the lowering of prices, for the farmer, his profits being larger and more secure, is stimulated to an increase of production. In this book we shall use,the words demand and supply in the sense given them rdinarily by business men, meaning by supply the goods in the market seeking a purchaser, and by demand the quantity of goods which people will buy at or near any given price. 7. The value equation. —Any business man knows that the price or value of an article tends to rise when-ever the demand for it at the existing price is in excess of the supply offered for sale at that price; and conversely that the price of an article is likely to decline whenever the suppl y offered at the existing price is greater than the demand. It is conditions of this sort which account for the zigzagging of prices in the speculative markets. In the worlds great exchanges, where the prices of certain basic commodities are fixed, the traders give consideration to all possible circumstances that may affect the present or future demand or supply of the article in which they are trading. A drought in Argentina may fore-shadow a lessened supply of wheat and cause traders to bid a higher price for it, or storms in Kansas and Nebraska may threaten the corn crop and bring on a rise in the price both of corn and of pork. At any given time there are in any market a number of men more or less anxious to buy a certain commodity and others who wish to sell. If the sellers are asking too high a price, certain buyers hold off and all the stock cannot be sold. On the other hand, if they should offer their goods at too low a price, the demand would exceed the supply, certain buyers would get all they wanted and others would be disappointed.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Looking At Laboratory Information Systems Information Technology Essay

Looking At Laboratory Information Systems Information Technology Essay INTRODUCTION Healthcare is always a top priority within any collection of individuals, whether it is the workforce, schools, churches, communities, states, countries etc. This is because mortality rates are directly affected by the level of healthcare available, and effective productivity is dependent on good health and high mortality rates. Developed nations tend to invest large sums of money into healthcare, in order to prevent most ailments before they become epidemics, however, due to lack of emphasis on the importance of healthcare, African nations suffer from low mortality rates caused by lack of proper laboratory procedures and equipment, to test and accurately diagnose problems ahead of time. Even though we are now in a highly advanced technological era, Nigerian hospitals still conduct tests, data collection, and calculations manually, leaving a huge opening for errors which could lead to wrong diagnosis and in turn, wrong treatment. As we humans become ever increasingly dependent on computer technology in our daily lives, it then would be appropriate to utilize technological solutions to problems conventional methods prove inefficient at. These problems can be solved with the use of a properly configured software system to manage all administrative tasks in the laboratories. The most effective use of technology to solve to these issues would be carried out using open source software popularly known as a Laboratory Information System (L.I.M.S). The model of this work seeks to provide an application which will enable vital functionalities such as proper documentation and storage of patient information, patient specimen/sample tracking, and most important, patient test results. In the light of the above, the proposed system applies the web application development approach in its information architecture and processing, however this system will run on a local machine as opposed to running on a remote server over the internet. Consequently at completion of this work, the end product should be a Laboratory information management system which handles activities in the lab from the entry of a patient to the laboratory to the generating of a test result or Laboratory report. BACKGROUND OF STUDY The study for the development of the laboratory information management system uses a medical laboratory facility: Bakor Medical laboratory as its case study. Investigations indicate that the following steps or procedures are undertaken in the process of getting tested in the medical laboratory. On entry into the laboratory a document known as the Patient Investigation form. This form holds information such as the Patients name, age sex, on filling this form the patient is then billed. The patient Investigation form is then transferred to a second laboratory attendant who then uses the information retrieved from the aforementioned form to fill the laboratory request book. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In recent times, due to increase in population, there is constant pressure on providers of various services to provide innovative methods of dispensing a sizable amount of services to great amount of people in the shortest possible time. Consequently, organizations are constantly resorting to technological solutions to meet up with the ever increasing demand for quality and speedy service delivery and with virtually everything in our day to day lives being technologically driven, should there not be a scenario where paper documentation is completely annihilated from medical laboratories?, where a system is adopted in which patient records and data are properly stored such as to enable features such as patient/visitor history tracker, where a returning patients history can aid the laboratory in deducing what type of test a visitor would request for, statistical reports generation where useful statistical information is inferred based on test results e.g whether or not there is an incr ease or decrease of new HIV infections, should there not be a software/application where other stakeholders in the health-care delivery processes such as doctors and pharmacists have access to laboratory generated information to aid in their health-care administration?, should the retrieval of patient test records be slow and cumbersome?, why must results be entered directly on the result document, therefore a backup copy is unavailable. Questions such as these will serve as a guide to the development of a robust system than manages various tasks in the medical laboratory. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS Based on the statement of the problems above the research question for this study are: How will the development of a laboratory information management System greatly increase the laboratorys efficiency? OBJECTIVE OF STUDY To design a robust Laboratory information System that will efficiently aid in the running of the laboratory facility To hold and provide timely information about each visitor to the laboratory To reduce the need to hire staff through the proper application of technological solutions therefore cutting cost. With a proper functioning and comprehensively designed application, Laboratory tasks such the following can be achieved: SAMPLES MANAGEMENT A LIMS can automate the management of samples. An organization can configure its analytical parameters and calculations into the LIMS before implementing the software in the laboratory. After sample registration, the system can print barcodes which it can scan at the end of the analysis when loading results into the LIMS. The system can check the completed results, automatically validating those which comply with specifications; and reporting (but not validating) out-of-specification results. A LIMS may release or retain lots and batches, according to a laboratorys specifications and calculations. Once results come available for the labs clients or owners, they can extract them in  PDF, XML  or spreadsheet files from the LIMS interface. (Note that moving insufficient data to a spreadsheet may lose the traceability of changes). LABORATORY USERS One may configure a LIMS for use by an unlimited  number of users. Each user owns an interface, protected by security mechanisms such as a login and a password. Users may have customized interfaces. A laboratory manager might have full access to all of a LIMS functions, whereas technicians might have access only to functionality needed for their individual work-tasks. ADMINISTRATIVE TASKS AUTOMATION As of 2009  LIMS implementations can manage laboratory sampling, consumables sampling schedule and financial (invoices). SCOPE OF STUDY Bakor Medical centre has various departments and sections based on the issue at hand to be dealt with; however this study focuses mainly on the lab processes, including data collection and management. This study takes the patient from the moment of entry into the medical centre, filling forms, up till the moment the test is taken, from that point onwards the study will focus on the methods used by the laboratory attendant to collect and store data, through recording of findings and submission of results This study will also concentrate on data backup and retrieval methods and will highlight potential errors and problems that could be encountered if the entire process was carried out manually instead of using a well configured computer application. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY The Computer based Laboratory information management System is quite desirable as it will benefit the laboratory in the area of repetitive task automation. It will serve as an assistant to the medical laboratory scientist. It will also benefit patients as they will be able to retrieve record from previous visits to the laboratory. LIMITATIONS OF STUDY The limitations of this study include: Inability to obtain actual test result document, as this goes against medical ethics for a third party to view Laboratory specimen or test results. Unavailability of qualified laboratory scientist at the study locations to properly explain terms and laboratory procedures. LITERATURE REVIEW From tasting urine to microscopy to molecular testing, the sophistication of diagnostic techniques has come a long way and continues to develop at breakneck speed. The history of the laboratory is the story of medicines evolution from empirical to experimental techniques and proves that the clinical lab is the true source of medical authority. Three distinct periods in the history of medicine are associated with three different places and therefore different methods of determining diagnosis: From the middle ages to the 18th century, bedside medicine was prevalent; then between 1794 and 1848 came hospital medicine; and from that time forward, laboratory medicine has served as medicines lodestar. The laboratorys contribution to modern medicine has only recently been recognized by historians as something more than the addition of another resource to medical science and is now being appreciated as the seat of medicine, where clinicians account for what they observe in their patients. The first medical diagnoses made by humans were based on what ancient physicians could observe with their eyes and ears, which sometimes also included the examination of human specimens. The ancient Greeks attributed all disease to disorders of bodily fluids called humors, and during the late medieval period, doctors routinely performed uroscopy. Later, the microscope revealed not only the cellular structure of human tissue, but also the organisms that cause disease. More sophisticated diagnostic tools and techniques such as the thermometer for measuring temperature and the stethoscope for measuring heart rate were not in widespread use until the end of the 19th century. The clinical laboratory would not become a standard fixture of medicine until the beginning of the 20th century. Ancient diagnostic methods In ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, the earliest physicians made diagnoses and recommended treatments based primarily on observation of clinical symptoms. Palpation and auscultation were also used. Physicians were able to describe dysfunctions of the digestive tract, heart and circulation, the liver and spleen, and menstrual disturbances; unfortunately, this empiric medicine was reserved for royalty and the wealthy. Other less-than-scientific methods of diagnosis used in treating the middle and lower classes included divination through ritual sacrifice to predict the outcome of illness. Usually a sheep would be killed before the statue of a god. Its liver was examined for malformations or peculiarities; the shape of the lobes and the orientation of the common duct were then used to predict the fate of the patient. Ancient physicians also began the practice of examining patient specimens. The oldest known test on body fluids was done on urine in ancient times (before 400 BC). Urine was poured on the ground and observed to see whether it attracted insects. If it did, patients were diagnosed with boils. The ancient Greeks also saw the value in examining body fluids to predict disease. At around 300 BC, Hippocrates promoted the use of the mind and senses as diagnostic tools, a principle that played a large part in his reputation as the Father of Medicine. The central Hippocratic doctrine of humoral pathology attributed all disease to disorders of fluids of the body. To obtain a clear picture of disease, Hippocrates advocated a diagnostic protocol that included tasting the patients urine, listening to the lungs, and observing skin color and other outward appearances. Beyond that, the physician was to understand the patient as an individual. Hippocrates related the appearance of bubbles on the surface of urine specimens to kidney disease and chronic illness. He also related certain urine sediments and blood and pus in urine to disease. The first description of hematuria or the presence of blood in urine, by Rufus of Ephesus surfaced at around AD 50 and was attributed to the failure of kidneys to function properly in filtering the blood. Later (c. AD 180), Galen (AD 131-201), who is recognized as the founder of experimental physiology, created a system of pathology that combined Hippocrates humoral theories with the Pythagorean theory, which held that the four elements (earth, air, fire, and water), corresponded to various combinations of the physiologic qualifies of dry, cold, hot, and moist. These combinations of physiologic characteristics corresponded roughly to the four humors of the human body: hot moist = blood; hot dry = yellow bile; cold moist = phlegm; and cold dry = black bile. Galen was known for explaining everything in light of his theory and for having an explanation for everything. He also described diabetes as diarrhea of urine and noted the normal relationship between fluid intake and urine volume. His unwavering belief in his own infallibility appealed to complacency and reverence for authority. That dogmatism essentially brought innovation and discovery in European medicine to a standstill for nea rly 14 centuries. Anything relating to anatomy, physiology, and disease was simply referred back to Galen as the final authority from whom there could be no appeal. Middle Ages In medieval Europe, early Christians believed that disease was either punishment for sin or the result of witchcraft or possession. Diagnosis was superfluous. The basic therapy was prayer, penitence, and invocation of saints. Lay medicine based diagnosis on symptoms, examination, pulse, palpitation, percussion, and inspection of excreta and sometimes semen. Diagnosis by water casting (uroscopy) was practiced, and the urine flask became the emblem of medieval medicine. By AD 900, Isaac Judaeus, a Jewish physician and philosopher, had devised guidelines for the use of urine as a diagnostic aid; and under the Jerusalem Code of 1090, failure to examine the urine exposed a physician to public beatings. Patients carried their urine to physicians in decorative flasks cradled in wicker baskets, and because urine could be shipped, diagnosis at long distance was common. The first book detailing the color, density, quality, and sediment found in urine was written around this time, as well. By a round AD 1300, uroscopy became so widespread that it was at the point of near universality in European medicine. Consequently, the clinical laboratory became a standard fixture of medicine at the beginning of the 20th century; it is now an integral part of the health-care delivery process and is seen as the basis for medical diagnosis. In recent times a medical laboratory scientist (MLS), formerly known as a medical technologist (MT) or clinical laboratory scientist (CLS), functions as a medical detective, performing laboratory tests that provide physicians with information that assists them in preventing, diagnosing and treating diseases and maintaining patient wellness.   The medical laboratory scientist performs a wide variety of laboratory tests, ranging from simple dipstick urine tests to complex DNA tests that help physicians assess risk of diseases. Using test results, physicians can uncover diabetes, cancer, heart attacks, infections and many other diseases.   Medical laboratory scientists interact with physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other members of the healthcare team to provide timely, accurate information so the patient can receive the correct medical treatment.   Medical laboratory scientists use sophisticated biomedical instruments and technology, microscopes, complex electronic equipment, computers, and methods requiring manual dexterity to perform tests on blood, body fluids, and tissue specimens. Clinical laboratory testing sections include clinical chemistry, hematology, Immunohematology (Blood Bank), immunology, microbiology and molecular diagnostics. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL LABORATORIES Medical Laboratories have played a pivotal role over the years. As stated above, in ancient times, physicians relied on various inaccurate means of disease diagnosis such as urine tasting, listening to the lungs etc. However with the advent and subsequent evolution of modern medical laboratory facilities, plus the discovery of the cellular nature of human tissue and the invention of the microscope, medical diagnosis made a tremendous leap from a 50-50 accuracy ratio to an 80% accuracy rating for laboratory based medical diagnosis. Therefore the use of medical laboratories has greatly increased the accuracy of diagnosis; hence the physician can administer the proper kind of treatment. The use of laboratories has also led to various discoveries, such as new strands of Viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. It also acts as a monitor for new strands of drug resistant bacteria. CHALLENGES FACED BY MEDICAL LABORATORIES The main challenges and bottle-necks encountered by medical laboratories over the years include. Inability to preserve patient samples or specimens such as blood, sputum, stool, over a long period of time for reference purposes hence making patient to specimen matching and tracking, Efficient information sharing and retrieval between the laboratory scientist and those administering treatment has been a problem. MEDICAL LABORATORIES: IMPROVEMENTS AND THE FUTURE For the efficient functioning of the diagnosis system, health-care delivery, scientific research into bacteriology and disease causing organisms, technology should be applied to automate administrative tasks, such as the visitor registration and result documentation. By making judicious use of computer software to automate and manage tasks in the laboratory there will be a dramatic increase in its efficiency. Consequently this will greatly reduce the need to recruit and pay personnel to carry out administrative duties therefore such resources can be channeled towards more important needs of the laboratory. TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM/PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE TO BE USED IN STUDY The technologies to be used in the development of this Laboratory Information Management system is an open source programming language known as PHP, together with a MYSQL driven database, a solid browser based application will be developed. PHP: PHP also known as Hypertext Pre-processor, it belongs to a class of languages known as middleware (Needham, 2006). These languages work closely with the web server to interpret the request made from the web, processes these request, interact with other programs on the server to fulfill the request and then indicates to the web server exactly what to serve to the clients browser. It is the leading web programming language for design of web applications. It possesses a language similar to C, Java or Pearl. Its uses include: retrieving user input and saving it in a database, retrieving information from a database and general data manipulation processes. THE CLIENT: Simply refers to end users of an application that connect to a remote server to carry out computational processes THE SERVER: An application known as a web server listens for requests a client makes, responds to those requests and serves out the appropriate response (Greenspan, 2002) MYSQL: Refers to an open source relational database management system with a set of programs that access and manipulate these records. (Descartes, 2003). It is a  relational database management system (RDBMS)  that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. APACHE WEB SERVER: Apache is a web server notable for playing an important role in the initial growth of the world-wide web. It is responsible for accepting Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) request from web client (web browsers) and serving the HTTP responses along with optional data content which usually are HTML pages. These platforms are used in this research work because: There are open source meaning there are free to use and develop with without having to purchase licenses or fulfill any legal obligation to the owners of the technology. It is easy to deploy on a local machine Its hardware requirements are minimal therefore making its installation and usage less cumbersome. Developer tools and support services for the platform/technology are readily available at absolutely no cost. DATA COLLECTED FOR LABORATORY TEST Lab Investigation Form: This form is used for general patient registration and data collection. Data collected on this form include Patient Name Patient age Hospital Number Specimen Blood Specimen Sputum Stool Urea Various Swap Investigation Record Clinic Details Name of Doctor Lab Request Book: Used to record Patients data for that day. Name Lab Investigation Done Amount Time in Data Collected for lab tests Lab result book (Used for recording patients results) Patients Name Date of birth Gender Test Results Date Hospital registration Number Extra Comments SUMMARY The use of technological solutions greatly reduces costs, increase profits, save human effort and provide better services to customers/clients The use of an LIS (Laboratory information System) in the running of a medical laboratory facility greatly improves the documentation process; makes patients records retrieval a lot easier and faster, records are not lost and are kept safe via regular backup of the available data. With the use of a Laboratory information system, various kinds of data deductions, surveys and reports can be easily generated for statistical purposes such as the average percentage of persons with a certain kind of disease, Genotype or blood type etc. CONCLUSION A properly developed Medical Laboratory information system will greatly increase productivity, increase the quality of services delivered by the facility and greatly reduce the amount of man hours put into the delivering the laboratory services

Saturday, October 12, 2019

My Education Essay example -- School Education Background Essays

My Education When speaking of the topic of who a person is and their past, a massive part of this includes their educational background. Isn’t this what forms people, their education? Of course, this doesn’t always have to refer to their organized education. Everything that a person learns is something that educates them; these words being synonymous. Even something like first learning to tie your shoes is a part of your education. Which method works better for you: loop, swoop, and pull, or bunny ears? I of course, like any other well educated person, use loop, swoop, and pull; it’s just the best way, no bias has ever developed there. I started out as a twinkle in my father’s eye in the fall of 1982, and then on that fateful day of July 20, 1983 I was born in the small town of Seward, Alaska. Coming into a world of beauty and ruggedness, I soon learned how to interact with the things around me. Never being a small person, smash and grab always seemed to be a good theory for whatever activity I pursued. Even though I may have got a few small scrapes and such along the way, I never did lose my speed and intensity. This is still how I do it - fast and efficiently - always quick to get bored. Growing up in Alaska, I learned the outdoors, fishing, and hunting. These lessons I will never forget. Coming from the woods, you learn a lot about self-reliance and prioritization. It started out with parents that were always interested in education, mine and their own, whenever I learned something new; they were always interested in it also. I was taught from the beginning much about the things around me, outdoors and in. I remember when I was in high school my mother would actually want to work with me on calculus, b... ...l of many areas of my chosen field, and not get bored with what is happening around me. I have a tentative plan of getting my masters in marketing, then going corporate for a hospitality corporation. This way I can actually make and see changes in the whole company, instead of just one property. In a person’s life, they learn from everything around them, and take in everything that they see, and learn from all of it. Hopefully, they get a good result so that they may be able to make a difference in the world around them. I feel that I have to tools to make the changes that I want, and the knowledge to know how to make these changes. I look toward the future with a bright outlook, and know that to keep learning is the key to making my bright outlook the truth. For my future and the future of people younger and older than me, education will always be the key.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Social Consequences of Industrialisation in Britain

In this report I am going to discuss the social consequences of industrialisation in Britain between 1800- and 1850. I will analyse the trends in population movements from rural settings to the city and discuss their causes. I will also discuss social structures of the time and explain how they were affected by industrialisation. I will analyse wealth in regards to distribution amongst the classes and how they differed.Lastly I will discuss such social conditions as living and working conditions, health and sanitation, law and order and education and reforms and laws which were set up as a means of trying to better people’s lives. Introduction Poverty was a concept that people in Britain in the Victorian age struggled with. Were the destitute victims of circumstances, idle and work shy or the victims of industrialisation?There was also the question of who should be responsible for the poor, should society take care of them or as many believed should they simply be left to thei r own devices? The hymn ‘All things bright and beautiful show a typical view on poverty; ‘The rich man in his castle, The poor man at his gate, God made them high and lowly, And ordered their estate. ’ With the onset of industrialisation and population shift, people began to question their place in society and anticipate whether they could indeed change this. Population migrationThe reasons for migration from the country to the city during the 18th and 19th centuries is mainly threefold, for one the population in the country began to grow, this is attributed to the drop in infant mortality rate and the surplus in births over deaths, secondly the invention of farm enhancing methods drastically reduced the need for an agricultural workforce, that, in conjunction with the development of large mass producing factories within the cities drew people away as there was more employment opportunity.Lastly, the north became a hub for large scale industrialisation as it was i n abundance with raw materials such as coal and iron which fuelled the rate of growth, while the south was the bread basket of the country. The population of northern cities such a Manchester grew from 25,000 in l772 to 303,000 by l850. By 1850, Britain was the only country in the world to have a larger urban population than rural. Social and occupational structure At the beginning of the 19th century, British population was very much ranked in classes; this was a way of assessing ones wealth and developing a social structure.The land owners and nobility were at the top of this structure, these people were the ones in change of the county. This power derived from the fact that only the wealthy land owners were permitted to vote therefore they would only permit laws which benefited themselves. With the rise of industrialization a new ‘middle class’ was born. This was usually wealthy merchants who had invested in factories and become very rich. They were not however alway s land owners and therefore unable to vote.The mill owners began to feel they deserved the right to vote. They indeed paid taxes and contributed heavily to the economy and in many cases were far wealthier than the blue blood land owners. The Whigs saw the middle classes push for the vote as a way to gain power, they knew if they could get a reformation on voting passed they would gain masses of support from the middle class. The Tories however resisted this. After the Whigs came to power in 1830, they tried several times to pass a reformation act, which the Tories repeatedly blocked.This was only passed when Earl Grey appealed directly to the king, who agreed to create more Whig lords. This did not please the Tory lords who then gave in and agreed to pass the Reformation Act. The working class where unaffected by this reformation in voting and began pushing for power and began organising trade unions to stand up for their rights against employers. The employers however banned groups of workers congregating in order to prevent them from rising up. Distribution of wealth Workers at this time were treated very badly, there were no laws specifying working times or wages.Meaning employers could pay as little as they wanted and workers were usually expected to work up to 19 hours per day 6 days a week. Work conditions were usually dangerous and accidents could easily happen. Despite these bad conditions however workers had little choice but to put up with them as work was hard to come by and there were often long lines of unemployed people queuing for their jobs. Many woman and children as young as 3 were employed in the factories until 1819 Cotton Mills act was passed preventing children under 9 from working and children under 16 from working more then 12 hours.Due to this exploitation of workers, the mill owners became fabulously wealthy. In addition to exploiting their workers, areas such as the textile trade imported cheap raw materials and sold them on for a la rge profit. Life in industrial cities Law and order Due to the poverty of many crime rates soared in the 19th century, in 1800 75% of these were petty thefts such as pick pocketing many of these were children, this is explored in Dickens’s Oliver twist, with his depiction of Fagin’s gang of pickpockets.Many people were also involved in marches as a way as campaigning for their rights and gaining fairer wages /wanting the right to vote and actions such as the luddites revolt. The judicial system of the time was varied and punishments such as prison, hanging and deportation was given out. In 1829 the Metropolitan Police were set up and in 1835 towns were allowed to set up their own police force. Education Before 1870, there was no standardised way of educating children in Britain; there was no Free State education until 1891.Prior to this the majority of children receiving education were those of the wealthy they were often educated at home by nannies. Once the boys were old enough (around 10/11) they would be sent to public school i. e. Eaton then progress to law school or become doctors. . Children of the poor were sent out to work when they were deemed old enough, education was not as important as earning a wage. However with the poor law amendment act, children entering the workhouse were also to receive education. Living conditions:Due to the rate of urban expansion houses were built quickly and were of poor quality, with areas often being referred to as ‘slums’. There was often housing shortages which resulted in cramped living spaces were whole families often lived in one room. ‘Hideous slums, some of them acres wide, some no more than crannies of obscure misery, make up a substantial part of the, metropolis †¦ In big, once handsome houses, thirty or more people of all ages may inhabit a single room’ Due to the high rent charges imposed by landlords and the growing demand for jobs many people became homeless an d ived on the streets. The streets were frightening places and this poverty and destitution gave rise to such social problems as alcoholism and prostitution as a way of escaping and making ends meet. Health conditions These cramp conditions also meant little to no sanitation which lead on to the spread of disease such as cholera, typhoid ad smallpox. In an article in 1849, author Henry Mayhew wrote how a ditch ran through the streets of London into which sewage emptied from this ditch the people would also drink. As we gazed in horror at it, we saw drains and sewers emptying their filthy contents into it; we saw a whole tier of doorless privies in the open road, common to men and women built over it; we heard bucket after bucket of filth splash into it’ Bad health for the poor can also be attributed to the corn law of 1804, in that the landowners imposed taxes on imported corn to protect their profits, thus making the price of bread, a staple of the poor mans diet, far more e xpensive. This in conjunction with a bad harvest in 1816 meant prices became higher still.Edwin Chadwick was a huge influence on the development of sanitation when he published ‘The Chadwick Report’ The Chadwick report In 1837, there were epidemics of influenza and typhoid. Edwin Chadwick was asked to compile a report looking at the living conditions of the poor. He conducted his report between 1839 and 1841. In his report he argued that disease was a direct result of poor sanitary conditions, concluding that reform must be made. In 1848 the ‘Public Health Act’ was passed. This act ensured that water and sewage supplies were clean as well as cleaning the streets and refuse collection was introduced.Chadwick was appointed Sanitation Commissioner and also president of the association of public sanitary inspectors in 1884. During his time in these roles he argued ways public health could be improved. These included the availability of fresh, clean water, water closets in every house and a sewage network which disposed of waste far away from inhabited areas. The old poor law The old poor law was introduced in 1601 and gave help to any poor person within the parish be it through monetary means, medical or the giving of food. This relief was paid for via poor rate, which was paid by local taxes.By 1832, the country was paying ? 7 million per anum to the able bodied poor and topping up low wages, something which the wealthy disagreed with. They argued that this encouraged laziness as a man knew he could work less and receive the same amount of money. They also argued it would have a negative effect on labouring, thus plunging the country into poverty. In 1834 a report was commissioned into bettering the welfare of the poor and reducing the government’s expenditure. The findings of this report lead onto the reform of the poor law. The poor law amendment act 1834Under this new act, the parishes were grouped into unions and each union wa s to build a workhouse. The unions were prevented from giving outside help to the poor and help was only accessible to those willing to give up their homes and enter the workhouses. The workhouses were deemed the ultimate humiliation to the poor and was meant to act as a deterrent to the able bodied poor. Conditions inside the workhouses were purposely bad and families were split up and sent to different living quarters. They were fed on basic food rations and children received education within the workhouses in exchange for several hours of daily manual labour.The workhouses were very unpopular and not all people agreed with the poor law. Richard Oastler referred to the workhouses as ‘prisons’ and several workhouses such as Andover Workhouse were published in the media for their horrific conditions. Charles dickens also sympathised with the poor stating in his novels that individuals in the workhouse were treated worse than criminals. ‘we have come to this absurd , this dangerous, this monstrous pass, that the dishonest felon is, in respect of cleanliness, order, diet, and accommodation, better provided for, and taken care of, than the honest pauper. Due to this the government set strict rules for the running of the workhouse. They were not always followed however. Conclusion It is evident that this period of history had a profound and ever-changing effect on the society of Britain, which can still be seen today. Many people suffered, sacrificed and fought for the rights to change their circumstances. New innovations and developments meant Britain became an industrial giant, and one of the wealthiest countries of its time. As well as a positive effect, like all things, there is also a negative. For the vast wealth created there were those who were exploited and became destitute.It can be argued however that this was necessary and without the suffering, progression would not have been possible. —————— ————————– [ 1 ]. C. Alexander 1848 [ 2 ]. Early Victorian Britain, J. F. C Harrison, Fontana press, London, 1988, Page 18 [ 3 ]. http://www. flowofhistory. com/units/eme/17/fc113 retrieved 20/01/12 [ 4 ]. http://www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/Pwhigs. htm, retrieved 1/12/11 [ 5 ]. Early Victorian Britain, J. F. C Harrison, Fontana press, London, 1988, Page 39 [ 6 ]. Summary of the duties of a justice of the peace out of sessions, H Pye, J Butterworth and sons 1827, Page 43 [ 7 ]. ttp://vcp. e2bn. org/teachers/11466-timeline. html retrieved 28/1/12 [ 8 ]. http://www. bbc. co. uk/history/trail/victorian_britain/education_health/laissez_faire_07. shtml retrieved 28/1/12 [ 9 ]. The Victorian underworld, K Chesney, Penguin books, 1991 [ 10 ]. http://www. hiddenlives. org. uk/articles/poverty. html retrieved 28/1/12 [ 11 ]. http://www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/PRcorn. htm retrieved 28/1/12 [ 12 ]. Edwin Chadwick, Poor la w and public health, R Watson, Longman group limited, England, 1990, page 6-15 [ 13 ]. A Christmas carol, C Dickens, Broadveiw press, 2003 page 204.